Friday, January 28, 2011

How the Internet went out in Egypt

Good Article. Egypt is just blocking access to their DNS servers. Another good reason to use Goggle's Public DNS servers:,
How the Internet went out in Egypt

Thursday, January 20, 2011

4900M connection to HP Virtual Connect Flex 10 - Not Working

HP Virtual Connect Flex-10

Update: The configuration on the HP Virtual Connect side was incorrect. Once the server team reconfigured their side, all was good.

Today I am posting something I submitted to

The customer has consultants configuring the HP side of things. I was asked to configure a Catalyst 4900M to work with the HP Virtual Connect Flex-10. From the Cisco side, this is not complex.

Tomorrow I am going onsite. I will open a TAC case on the way and sit beside the server guys.

4900M connection to HP Virtual Connect Flex 10

I'm Trying to connect a HP-C7000 blade server with a Virtual Connect Flex 10 connection with 10Gb links to a Catalyst 4900M. I have no control of the HP side.

From the HP guide, we are following "HP Virtual Connect Ethernet Cookbook" "Scenario 1:5 - VLAN Tagging (802.1q) with Shared Uplink Set (SUS) with Link Aggregation using LACP (802.3ad) - VMware ESX"

On the 4900M, LLDP sees the Virtual Connect and LCAP up with 2 active links.

Show interface on Ten1/1, Ten1/2, Port-Channel 1 shows 0 packets input.

Basically, we can not get any packets from the HP Server/VMware server side through the Catalyst 4900.

IOS version: 12.2(54)SG

Switch ports are as follows:
interface Port-channel1
description HP FLEX-10-VC
switchport trunk allowed vlan 4,8,10,11,16,22-24,69,99-  101,156,192,300,500
switchport mode trunk
switchport nonegotiate
spanning-tree portfast trunk
interface TenGigabitEthernet1/1
description HP FLEX-10-VC
switchport trunk allowed vlan 4,8,10,11,16,22-24,69,99-101,156,192,300,500
switchport mode trunk
switchport nonegotiate
spanning-tree portfast trunk
channel-protocol lacp
channel-group 1 mode active
interface TenGigabitEthernet1/2
description HP FLEX-10-VC
switchport trunk allowed vlan 4,8,10,11,16,22-24,69,99-101,156,192,300,500
switchport mode trunkswitchport nonegotiate
spanning-tree portfast trunk
channel-protocol lacp
channel-group 1 mode active

Sunday, January 16, 2011

Do we need spanning tree ?

I had an interesting experience last week at a customers. I happened to be onsite to discuss why 4 Catalyst 4500 chassis had failed in 6 months. Each of them had similar symptoms, packets would no longer pass through them and a "show module" would either show the modules as not present or failed.

First we need a description of how the network is designed. This network is divided into "Network A" and "Network B". The separate networks represent the "business users" and the "operations users and systems". At the core of the network they have a single Catalyst 6500 with down links to Network A and Network B Catalyst 4500 switches.

The respective Catalyst 4500s have multiple down links to their respective Network A and Network B distribution Catalyst 4500s. These Catalyst 4500s have uplinks to access-layer switches. Each wiring closet has two switches, one for each network. If it is not clear, there are NO redundant links. There should be no loops in the network.

Here is a very simplified few of the network.

Now we get to the origins of the problem I would experience. The situation has been explained to me as this "when we implemented the network spanning tree was very buggy. So we disabled spanning tree on the 6500. I thought spanning tree would be enabled at some point." Oh boy!!!

So back to my incredibly good timing onsite. We were in a car heading to a building to look at the wiring closet were multiple Catalyst 4500s had failed the past few months. The customer driving the car got a call, users connected to Network B, or the operations and systems network, were unable to connect to their systems. Essentially, the operators were not able to see how the plant was operating. It also looked like the operations management systems were not able to see how the systems were operating. uh oh!!!

We headed back to the main building and I began troubleshooting the network. The CIO and multiple managers were standing behind me anxiously waiting for a diagnosis. I found the top Catalyst 4500s for the Network B side of the house, had its 1 GB uplink running at 95% utilization.

From previous work here, I knew spanning tree was disabled on the 6500, so I was worried about a loop (I have worked with this customer for 2 years. Each time I met with them, I recommend they should enable spanning tree, but there was always strict change controls which discouraged the customer's engineers from enabling spanning tree and a fear of something bad happening).

Suspecting a loop, my suggested to the CIO that I enable spanning tree. Asked about the impact, I said there could be 2 minutes when un-affected users and servers could have connectivity disrupted while spanning tree converged (yes 2 minutes is longer than required I wanted them to have appropriate expectations). He agreed, and on the core Catalyst 6500, I enabled spanning tree for all VLANs and set the switch as the spanning tree root of the network.

I thought I had the Loop in the network blocked. I now expected the network to spontaneously recover. Operations still couldn't connect to their systems. What was wrong?

I looked at the top-most Catalyst 4500 "B" switch. On this switch, I checked the CPU utilization. The CPU was pegged at 99%. A CPU running at 99% is an indication of a switch process switching a ton of packets. There are several types of packets which are processed switched, but I suspected Broadcast packets.

I need to find were the broadcast packets came from. I cleared the interface counters, then ran this command several times over a minute: show interface | include Gigabit|broadcast.

I quickly saw a single interface with a lot of broadcast packets. I connected to the downstream switch connected to the interface and repeated the command looking for an offending interface. I found it and connected to the access-layer switch. Remember, the network is divided between Network A and Network B.

I was connected to a switch named 3560-B-Bldg1. show cdp neighbor revealed the switch was also connected to a switch named 3560-A-Bldg1. I had suspected a loop, but hadn't looked for one or found one. I thought enabling spanning tree on the core switch would take care of it. I had finally found the loop!!

Things should have calmed down, but the had not, why? I looked at the interfaces on the 3560s that connected them together. The interface connected to each other on 3560-A-Bldg1 and 3560-B-Bldg1 had the same configuration:

interface GigabitEthernet 0/#
   switchport access vlan 500
 spanning-tree portfast

Both interfaces were configured as access ports to VLAN 500 and had portfast enabled. What is on VLAN 500? This is the VLAN used by the operations systems, users, and management systems. I had enabled spanning tree at the core, but this did not stop the loop. When spanning-tree port fast is enabled on an access interface, that interface does not participate in spanning tree.

As Astro says, "rut ro!"

I shut down the Gigabit interface on 3560-B-Bldg1. Finally, this should have corrected the problem...

When you have a loop in the network, what is the most damaging type of traffic...Broadcast..So I went back to looking for broadcast traffic. On 3560-B-Bldg1 I resumed running the show interface | include Gigabit|broadcast command. One interface appeared to receive an abnormally large amount of broadcast traffic. In fact the interface received about 55 million broadcast packets in 60 seconds. So I shut down that port.

The network finally recovered!

Observations / Lessons learned

  • Never disable spanning tree globally on a switch
  • Spanning-tree portfast disables spanning tree on an interface
  • consider running on every switch bpduguard 

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Introducing BillyC5022

Welcome to my Blog

I have worked in the IT industry since 1994. I survived the Internet boom or the 90's, Y2K, the VoIP boom in the 2000's, and now I am diving headfirst into Virtualization.

I am also married to a wonderful woman and the father of 5 daughters...Ages 1, 4, 5, 6, 9.

I am CCIE 5022, Routing and Switching. I currently work on Routing & Switching, Firewalls & VPNs, Unified Communications, Data Center Architectures. I am now jumping into Virtualization with Cisco Unified Computing Systems (UCS), VMware, NetApp, and EMC.

Customized Search Engine for Networking and Virtualization
The custom Google search engine at the top of the page has been optimized to search domains and websites related to Cisco, VMware, NetApp, and EMC. It is currently referencing 66 distinct urls including YouTube pages for Cisco, VMware, NetApp, and EMC. Many urls are for respected websites and blogs relating to this technology. If you have any suggestions for websites to be included, let me know.

Disclosure and Disclaimer
I work for an IT Consulting company. We have partnerships with the following vendors; Cisco, VMware,NetApp, EMC, HP, Veem, Microsoft, and maybe some others I can't remember.

The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.

Catch me on Twitter @Billyc5022 
I hope you enjoy.

The Begining

I am starting this blog to share my thoughts, provide a customized search tool, and aggregate the blogs I follow. More to come.